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the college of doctors and was given two passages to study. Later
in the day he gave an exposition of the passages, and was subjected
to examination, first by two doctors appointed for the task and
then by any or all of the others. If on a vote of the doctors present
his candidature was approved, he became a licentiate, and gradua-
tion was completed by his appearance at the public examination,
which took place with much ceremony in the cathedral. The final
act which marked his admission into the ranks of the doctors was
the delivery of a lecture on some question of law and a disputation
with selected students on the points which had been raised. He
was then presented to the Archdeacon and received from him the
licence to teach. Thereafter he was formally installed as a teacher.
He took his seat in the magisterial chair (cathedra), one of the law
texts was put in his hand, a gold ring was placed on his finger
(perhaps to show that he was the equal of a knight), the doctor's
cap was placed on his head, and finally he was escorted through
the town by the two " universities."

A similar system developed in Paris, either independently
or more probably in imitation of the practice of Bologna. As
early as 1215 we find a definite curriculum of study for the degree
in arts. The basis of the course was the seven liberal arts in a
much modified form. Logic as set forth in Aristotle's Organon,
and Porphyry's Introduction was the main subject of study.
Grammar was pursued in a narrow way with reference to the
treatises of Priscian, and did not include literature. Rhetoric
and philosophy were regarded as of secondary importance and
only read on feast days. The books specified on Rhetoric were
the Barbarisms of Donatus and the Topics of Boethius, Philosophy
included Aristotle's Ethics and the four subjects of the quadrivium.
Modifications were subsequently made at various times, notably
by the addition of those works of Aristotle on Metaphysics and
Natural Philosophy, recovered at the beginning of the Thirteenth
Century, but prohibited at first as dangerous to faith. By the
middle of the Fourteenth Century the course fell into three parts :
(a) for the baccalaureateógrammar, logic, and psychology;
(J) for the licenceónatural philosophy; (c) for the mastership
ómoral philosophy and the completion of the course on natural

By the end of the Thirteenth Century there were examinations
on the prescribed work at the various stages of the course. The